Fourth Period (1930-1960):
Important Buildings of the Fourth Period:
Parliament Building (Palacio Nacional).
Historically, this constitutes the highest expression of the emergency
of the State under the dictatorial power of Trujillo. It was built by
the mechanical and industrial engineer Guido D' Alessandro Lombardi, an
Italian married to a Dominican and resident in the country. It took
three years to draw up the plans and its construction was initiated on
February 27, 1944, intended to coincide with the centennial celebrations
of national independence. The building was inaugurated on August 16,
1947. The cost of the structure alone is estimated to be some five
million pesos (in local currency at the time). It is crowned by a dome
on a quadrangular drum and its facades present a rhythmic succession of
large windows and stylized doors that serve to soften the orthogonal
character that dominates the Neoclassicist ensemble. Internal decoration
of the parlors corresponds to diverse influences, including: Victorian,
Neoclassicism and Italian Renaissance, Barroque, Greco-Roman, and Luis
XVI French. Architect Humberto Ruiz Castillo is thought to have been the
design director for the group that drew up the plans for the building.
Courts of Ciudad Nueva (Palacio de Justicia de
Ciudad Nueva). Designed by Mario Lluberes Abreu. Neoclassical style.
Large cubic volume confers a sensation of solidity.
Modern Market or Mercado Moderno (known today as the
Mercado Modelo de la Avenida Mella). Work on this market was
directed by Guido D'Alessandro Lombarda, following a design by Henry
Gazón Bona. Engineer José Ramón Báez López-Penha worked in its
Copello Building. It is located on El Conde
Street on the corner with Sánchez and was inaugurated in 1939. It was
immediately regarded as an architectural milestone that would be
"reproduced" throughout the city. Its design is the work of Mr.
Guillermo González Sánchez, who is considered to be the father of Modern
Dominican architecture, and birthday (November 3) was decreed the Day of
Dominican Architecture. This building follows the trend of international
modern architecture: undecorated floors and facades, extended windows
curved to the upper body of the structure. Subsequently, during the
civil war of 1965, it would serve as the headquarters of the
constitutional government as it faced nationalist coup forces and the
American Army. The impact of bullets on its walls is still visible.
Jaragua Hotel. Masterpiece of Mr. Guillermo
González Sánchez, inaugurated in 1942. It took four years to complete
and required an investment of about five hundred thousand pesos (RD$
500,000.00) in local currency at the time. Of modernist style, it gained
the attention of international architectural critics. Highlights of the
structre were an Andalusian style Spanish patio that faced and
"venerated" the sea. The ensemble was composed of three clearly
distinguishable staggered volumes which gave it an air of roundness or
rotation. Sadly, it was destroyed in 1985. Other buildings designed by
the same architect include: the Hamaca Hotel, the Hispaniola Hotel, the
Casino de Güibia, the Perla Antillana Racecourse, the National Brewery
plant, and the Civil Firemen building.
Lope de Haro Building
Vapor House. Masterpiece of one of the official
state architects, Henry Gazón Bona. Residence in the shape of ship, with
the "bow" oriented toward the east, it is a "beauty in architectural
boldness" which unites modernism with the principles of Art Deco.
Immediately earned its place in the Dominican architectural vanguard.
Located in Gazcue.
La Feria de la Paz y Confraternidad del Mundo Libre
(" Fair of Peace and Confraternity of the Free World" - Centro de los
Héroes). Built in commemoration of the 25th anniversary of Dictator
Trujillo's ascent to power (1955), it was ready in six months. At the
time it marked the Western limits of the city. It was built along a
North-South axis, and in this architectural ensemble of symbolic
buildings two sculptural pieces signaled one's entrance into a place "of
great symbolic content and strong presence": the Plaza de las Naciones,
with its species of harp that intoned the winds, and the Atlante or
Apolo (Atlas or Apollo), colossus with raised arms, holding a dove in
one hand and the Universe in the other. Both disappeared during
Hurricane David in 1978. Also emphasized are the City Hall and the
National Congress, which were the responsibility of Guillermo González
Sánchez, who was also assited by Leonte Bernal Vásquez, Margarita Taulé,
and Amable Frómeta Preyra. The City Hall, whose Gothic Venetian exterior
denotes great purity, remained unfinished in some of its aspects due to
the rapidity demanded by the State for its completion. Another of the
buildings that form part of the Feria is the Teatro Agua y Luz, gifted
with a spectacular system of water and lights designed by Catalonian
Obelisco del Malecón (Jetty Obelisk). Celebrated
the change of name from Santo Domingo to Ciudad Trujillo. Built by
engineer Rafael Bonnelly García.
Monumento a la Paz (Monument to Peace). Located
in the city of Santiago, it is the work of Henry Gazón Bona. It was
inaugurated in 1944.
El Castillo del Cerro. Located on the outskirts
of San Christopher, it is the work of Henry Gazón Bona. The high cost of
its construction did not please tyrant, and its creator ended up in
voluntary exile in Canada.
The basilica Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Altagracia.
An international contest of ideas for the design of the Basílica Nuestra
Señora de la Altagracia in 1947 selecyed the French architects André J.
Dunoyer de Segonzac y Pierre Dupré for the project. However, the
building would not be erected until many years later.
La Ciudad del Ozama. 500 años de historia
urbana. Eugenio Pérez Montás, Barcelona, Third Edición, 2001.
THE COPELLO BUILDING by Omar Rancier:
SOME IMPORTANT DATES IN DOMINICAN ARCHITECTURE by
Emilio José Brea García, architect.
VICISITUDES DE UN MONUMENTO - Emilio José Brea García
Guillermo González Revisitado (Guillermo González Revisited) by Omar
Rancier for Arquiteca,