According to the Constitution of 2015, the Government of the Dominican Republic is fundamentally civil, republican, democratic and representative. The Constitution divides Legislative Power, Executive Power and Judicial Power. These three powers are independent in the exercise of their respective functions. Their leaders are responsible for and cannot delegate powers, which are determined only by the Constitution and laws.
The Dominican Republic is a Social and Democratic State of Law, organized in a single Republic, founded on the respect for human dignity, fundamental rights, labor, popular sovereignty and the separation and independence of political powers.
The Executive Power is exercised in name for the people by the President of the Republic, in his or her position as leader of the State and government. The Legislative Power is exercised by the National Congress, comprised of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Judicial Power is exercised by the Supreme Court of Justice and tribunals created by the Constitution and Dominican laws.
The structure of the system of government of the Dominican Republic is composed of three main powers: the Legislative Power, Executive Power and Judicial Power.
1) Legislative power. Within the constitutional hierarchy, the legislative branch constitutes the primary power of the State. It is represented by the Senate of the Republic, or Higher House, and by the Chamber of Deputies, or the Lower House.
The senate is composed of elected members at a ratio of one member per province and one per National District, whose terms last four years. The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 178 deputies elected by territorial district in representation of the National District and provinces; five deputies chosen at the national level by an accumulation of votes and seven deputies chosen in representation of the Dominican community abroad. The essential purpose of the bi-cameral body, called the National Congress, is to legislate and regulate in representation of the people.
It is the responsibility of the legislative branch to propose and produce laws that upon arrival are sent to the executive power for approval. Also, it is responsible for annually voting on the State’s General Budgetary Law. The ratification of international agreements and national contracts that the executive power makes with foreign bodies also are passed on to the legislative branch. The main political parties of the country are represented in this branch.
2) Executive Power. The Executive Power is exercised in name for the people by the President of the Republic, in his or her position as head of State and government, who will be elected every four years by direct vote. The President can opt only for a second consecutive constitutional period and cannot run again for the same position or for vice-president of the Republic.
The Constitution establishes the duties of the President, among them the appointment of State officials, the promotion of laws, the regulation of customs, ensuring good tax collection and the investment of national income in good faith.
3) Judicial Power. Justice is freely administered, in the name of the Republic, by the Judicial Power. This power is exercised by the Supreme Court of Justice and tribunals created by the Constitution and by Dominican laws.
The Judicial function consists of administering justice to decide upon conflicts between natural or legal persons, in private or public law, in every type of processes, judging and exercising judgment. Its exercise corresponds to tribunals and judges determined by the law. The Judicial Power enjoys administrative, functional and budgetary autonomy.