Until the early sixties, few Dominicans, in essence only political refugees, had to search for other lands. The change in the last four decades, which brings some experts to speak of a “true exodus”, is due to a series of factors:
Income coming from Dominicans abroad is a factor contributing to economic and social development; remittances are a significant source of money.
In 2012 the country received US$3,158,000,000, a 1.3% decline in remittances compared to that recieved in 2011, attributed to the deteriorating economic situation in the main places where Dominican migrants live, especially Spain and Puerto Rico. In 2013 a value of US$3,333,000,000 was registered and in 2014 “the amount of US$4,600,020,000” was estimated. Remittances to the Dominican economy make up approximately 6 percent of GDP and represent an important component of family income.
The individual that emigrates is on average from the urban middle or lower middle class, opting for large metropolitan areas in the country to which they arrive. Their level of education surpasses the median of the country, though the number of professionals with university studies in other countries that remain as part of the work force has increased.
Dominicans residing abroad: Dominican population registered and or estimated in the main countries of residency
|Destination Country||Estimated Number of Migrants|
|Antigua and Barbuda||1,740|
Source: Observatory of Caribbean Migrants (OBMICA) – State of the Art of Migrations that deal with the Dominican Republic 2014 with data from Eurostat (2014), UNDESA (2013b), World Bank (2010) and US Census (2010)
Dominicans occupy fourth place among Hispanic immigrants in the United State, after Mexicans, Cubans and Salvadorans. According to the 2010 US Census, 1,414,703 Dominicans reside in the country, contributing to 2.8% of the total of Latinos.
The majority of this population lives in the northeast region of the United States, as shown in the following box:
Dominicans in the United States, 2010
Fuente: US Census Bureau, 2010 Census – 2010 Hispanic Population, S. Enis/M.Rios-Vargas/N. Albert. www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br
According to an analysis by Pew Research Center of the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, its estimated that 1.8 million Hispanics of Dominican origin resided in the United States in 2013.
López, Gustavo. 2015. “Hispanics of Dominican Origin in the United States, 2013.“ Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, September.
After the United States, the nation with the greatest number of Dominican immigrants is Spain, although official numbers have been decreasing in recent years
As we see in the following table, the estimated population of Dominicans in Spain has been decreasing in recent years likely due to the economic crisis that has afflicted that country.
Dominicans in Spain (2010 – 2014)
|Year||Dominican residents in Spain|
Some of the factors contributing to the Dominican migration toward Spain have been:
The fact of sharing similar cultures, religions and especially language has been an important factor in the decision of Dominicans to choose Spain as a migratory destination. The Dominican woman, especially, decided to go to Spain and easily inserted herself into the labor force, particularly in domestic services, whereas men, in less number, engaged in the construction area, among other Jobs.
Pimentel, Alcides. DOMINICANS IN SPAIN. DOMINICANS IN BARCELONA, Departamento de Geografía Humana, Universidad de Barcelona http://www.ub.edu/geocrit/sn-94-65.htm
 López, Gustavo. 2015. “Hispanics of Dominican Origin in the United States, 2013.“ Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, September.