At the geographical coordinates 17° 30 and 19° 56 latitude north and 68° 19 and 72° 31 longitude west, the Dominican Republic is considered to be located in the tropical region of the world. It has an uneven relief, as approximately 50% of its territory is occupied by five sierras and 3 large mountain ranges, in which the highest altitudes of the Antilles can be found (Pico Duarte, 3,187 msnm). The remaining surface of the national territory is composed of four large valleys; the largest is the Valle del Cibao. All of these systems run northwest to southeast, influencing the direction of the trade winds, which in turn affects the distribution of rain, giving the country diverse and contrasting microclimates.
In the Dominican Republic, nine ecological zones and seven transition formations have been identified. Wet subtropical forest is the climate that covers the most area and is found dispersed throughout the national territory. The country is also divided into 20 geomorphological regions and eight subregions.
The Dominican Republic, due to its geographical position, boasts a tropical climate influenced by various geographical factors, like orography and the influence of the trade winds, in addition to the atmospheric phenomena that affect it year-round.